For a start, the U.S. Federal Reserve has a monopoly on making dollars, both paper and digital. It does not just print notes like a mint but provides freshly minted dollars on credit. For instance, the Federal Reserve buys bonds from the U.S. government, promising to repay the debt with interest later. The government uses the debt to finance its programs including those on saving the banking system and returns the debt from the budget. The budget is filled by people who pay taxes.